Deep Dive In-depth analysis of important topics in autism.
Illustration by
Julia Yellow

The enemy within

The possibility that autism is caused by a maternal immune system gone awry is no longer a fringe idea — but proposals to identify or fix these glitches are still controversial.

by  /  9 March 2016
illustration by:
Julia Yellow

Judy Van de Water got into autism research precisely because she wasn’t an expert in autism. She is an immunologist, studying the strategies our bodies employ to defend us against pathogens, and the ways those strategies sometimes misbehave or overreact. But about 15 years ago, the then-new MIND Institute, which sought to bring fresh eyes to understanding disorders of brain development and function, set up shop near her lab at the University of California, Davis. When the institute asked for grant proposals from specialists in fields outside brain development, Van de Water heeded the call.
Her proposal eventually led her to pursue an outsider idea: the possibility that immune responses in an expectant mother’s body, unleashed in the wrong place at the wrong time, can interfere with the development of the growing fetus’ brain. She now holds that this immune activity could be the cause of nearly one in four cases of autism. In particular, Van de Water blames a certain set of antibodies, immune molecules designed to target invading infectious agents and destroy or neutralize them. She’s so sure she’s right that she refers to it confidently as ‘MAR,’ or ‘maternal-antibody-related autism.’

From the start, it was a provocative theory that ran counter to prevailing beliefs about both the immune system and autism, and in the early days Van de Water was one of its few proponents. “We’ve been swimming upstream — still are,” she says. Her peers criticized Van de Water’s work on the grounds that her results didn’t support her claims. And they were deeply upset when, in 2013, Van de Water formed a licensing partnership with a San Diego-based company called Pediatric Bioscience. That deal was aimed at developing a maternal antibody screen that might allow for early diagnosis of autism or, if performed prenatally, indicate the risk of having a child with autism. “This is very, very premature,” Yale University autism researcher George Anderson told Science at the time.

Still, despite the controversy, the basic idea underlying Van de Water’s work — that maternal immune activity can increase risk for some types of autism — is edging into the mainstream. Researchers from other labs are exploring the consequences of maternal immune activity. Some teams are investigating a second immune pathway, involving cytokines, signaling molecules that coordinate the response to infection. Their results, showing that antibodies and cytokines are both capable of producing autism-like symptoms in mice, have been reported in the past year in prestigious journals and at high-profile conferences.

The implications of this idea could be a huge deal for families. It should be possible to offer a test that screens a woman for the antibodies that might trigger autism, just as Van de Water hopes to do. “Testing for the presence of a particular antibody is something that, in principle, we know how to do,” says Betty Diamond, an immunologist at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research in Manhasset, New York, who is another leader in the new field. What’s still unclear is how accurately such a test in a woman would predict autism risk in her child. Diamond is instead focusing her lab’s efforts on prevention. She envisions treating a woman who carries the harmful antibodies with a relatively benign medicine that would neutralize the antibodies. “We want to develop something that’s safe enough that if we give it to 10 times the number of people we need to in order to protect one fetus, we haven’t done any damage at all,” says Diamond.

“We’ve been swimming upstream — still are.” Judy Van de Water

Fragile truce:

The suspicion that there might be a connection between the immune system and autism first emerged in the 1980s, based mostly on anecdotal evidence. In a 2006 review of the nascent field, Van de Water’s team called the immune system “a new frontier” for autism research and laid out several relevant themes: Children with autism spectrum disorder often have problems with their immune systems — they are sick more often than typically developing children are — and show evidence of neurological abnormalities, such as aberrant brain structures. What’s more, women with autoimmune diseases, in which the body attacks healthy cells as if they were invaders, are more likely to have children with neurological disorders than are their peers. (A 2015 paper later confirmed this, showing that women with the autoimmune condition lupus double their risk of having a child with autism, and women with rheumatoid arthritis or celiac disease are also at increased risk.) In her review, Van de Water also noted that immune dysfunction and autoimmunity have been associated with other disorders of brain development, such as schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease.

Since 2006, researchers pursuing these observations have generally followed one of two tracks: Some have focused on immune issues in children, and others have explored what might happen in utero when a woman’s immune system misfires, overreacts or is ill-timed.

During pregnancy, a woman’s immune system can be said to be conflicted. To defend her against invading pathogens and microbes, the system marshals a veritable army of weapons, ranging from B cells and T cells to antibodies, and deploys them in an impressive variety of ways to get the job done. Yet a growing fetus carries its father’s DNA as well as its mother’s, making it a half-foreign presence in her uterus. In response to this built-in standoff, a pregnant woman’s body compromises. It lets down its defenses a little, suppressing the immune system of the mother in favor of the fetus. So what happens if the woman does get sick while pregnant? Or has an immune system that doesn’t work well to begin with?

From such questions, a theory emerged, first published in 1990, that perhaps the fragile truce between the maternal immune system and a developing fetus doesn’t always hold. When it fails, the hypothesis goes, the mother’s defense mechanisms are activated — or sometimes malfunction — and damage the fetus.

Resistance to investigating immune connections to autism, in either children or their parents, was strong. “People assumed that everything is genetic,” says Andrew Zimmerman, a pediatric neurologist at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and an early researcher of maternal immune antibodies. What’s more, it was long thought that the immune system and the nervous system don’t interact much because most pathogens and immune molecules cannot breach the blood-brain barrier. (That barrier acts as a moat to protect the brain from compounds or pathogens in the blood.) Also, the idea that a woman’s immune system might cause problems in the fetus came to the fore as the autism community was trying to undo the damage from the now-discredited theory that vaccines can cause autism. The experience placed an additional burden on any research implicating the immune system in autism.

Forging ahead:

Undaunted by the headwinds, Van de Water’s lab initially pursued research in both children and mothers, but eventually, her former postdoctoral fellow, Paul Ashwood, took the lead in investigating children’s immune problems at his lab at the University of California, Davis, while Van de Water continued to think about the mothers. She pursued the idea that maternal antibodies attack the growing fetus’ brain, killing healthy cells and setting development off track in a way that might eventually result in autism. “The maternal antibody story made sense on a biological level to me,” says Van de Water. She started by screening blood from women who have children with either autism or specific language impairment, looking for patterns that stood out when compared with the blood of mothers of typically developing children.


Support for the idea came from a 2003 case study of a 38-year-old woman who had one typically developing child, one with autism, and one with specific language impairment. A group of researchers at Oxford University in the U.K. found that her blood carried an antibody that bound to fetal brain tissue from mice, meaning that the antibody was specialized for a target, or antigen, in the mouse brain. The scientists injected serum from that woman into pregnant mice. The pups from these mice were less likely to explore, and a little slower at a standard test of motor coordination, than pups born to mice injected with serum from controls. In 2007, Zimmerman and his collaborators took the work further to show that antibodies in the serum from mothers of children with autism bind to targets in brains from only fetal rats, not adult rats.

Meanwhile, Van de Water’s hunt soon paid off. In 2008, her group reported that in 7 out of 61 mothers of children with autism, or 11.5 percent, they had found a common, characteristic set of antibodies in the women’s blood that bound to tissue from fetal, but not adult, human brains. The researchers could not say why some women produce these antibodies and others don’t or whether these antibodies persist in women for life or are transient — and they still don’t know. It took four tries to get that paper published. Van de Water says one reviewer responded with just one line: “We don’t know that autism has anything to do with the immune system.” Shortly thereafter, her team joined with MIND Institute neuroscientist David Amaral and reported that four rhesus macaque monkeys exposed in utero to the human maternal antibodies showed behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypic pacing and hyperactivity. Watching those young monkeys struggle, says Van de Water, was “the moment I knew the antibodies were doing something.”

In 2013, her group identified seven proteins, all involved in neural development, that apparently are targets of maternal antibodies. Of the 246 mothers of children with autism in this larger study, Van de Water’s team reported that 23 percent carried some combination of antibodies to the specified proteins, compared with only 1 percent of the 149 mothers of typically developing children. (Others who have analyzed the data from that paper say 23 percent is too high because Van de Water’s team included various combinations of antibodies in that figure. Steven Goodman, a biostatistician at Stanford University, noted in Science that no single pattern was found in more than 7 percent of the mothers.)

Diamond, an expert in lupus, wondered whether these same women might have signs of autoimmune disease in their cells even if they showed no symptoms. That’s exactly what her research later found. “They weren’t hurt by it because of an intact blood-brain barrier, but their fetuses might be hurt by it,” she says.

It turns out that a developing brain might be more vulnerable to autoimmune activity because it is not yet fully protected by the blood-brain barrier. In 2014, Diamond and her colleagues found that in mice, the blood-brain barrier of a developing fetus becomes truly impenetrable only in the third trimester. If a similar window of vulnerability exists in people, the implications for brain development are significant. The long-held belief that the brain is ‘immune privileged’ and that antibodies can’t reach it has had to evolve. “We were too limited by that,” says Lior Brimberg, a postdoctoral fellow in Diamond’s lab.

Diamond’s team tested sera from more than 2,400 mothers of children with autism for the antibodies that attack fetal brain tissue. They found that the women who have these antibodies are more likely to have an autoimmune disease than are women who do not have the antibodies. They also found that mothers of children with autism are four times more likely to harbor the antibodies than is a control group of women of childbearing age.

Most recently, Brimberg devised a way to identify at least one of the target neuronal proteins, CASPR2, in fetal brains. When she injected an antibody targeting CASPR2 into pregnant mice, she found that the pups later had structural abnormalities in their brains — their neurons had fewer branches — and behaviors reminiscent of autism, such as impaired sociability. If this protein is involved in autism, Diamond estimates that it could be responsible for up to 4 percent of cases. Notably, CASPR2 is not on Van de Water’s list of seven proteins, which strongly suggests that more possible protein targets for maternal antibodies will be identified in the future.

"I worry about this … There are real-world consequences.” Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom

Preventing autism?

Another line of research traveling a different path through the immune system has arrived at a similar pattern of results. Some studies showed that a pregnant woman who has a viral infection has an increased risk of having a child with autism. These were retrospective, asking women sometimes years after the fact to report any illness during their pregnancy. A 2014 Swedish study was more persuasive because it followed the outcomes of more than 2 million births, confirming that an infection requiring hospitalization during pregnancy increases the risk of having a child with autism by more than 35 percent — even though the overall risk is still quite small.

Viral infections such as the flu set off a surge of cell-signaling cytokines, and neurobiologist Paul Patterson at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, an early pioneer in this research, became curious about the connections between viral infections and brain development. Working in mice, Patterson’s lab mimicked viral infection in pregnant animals, stimulating their immune systems and causing behavioral deficits in the pups. In studying these pups, Patterson zeroed in on a particular cytokine called interleukin-6 (IL-6) that he linked to their abnormal behavior.

Patterson died in 2014, and Dan Littman, a neuroimmunologist at New York University, picked up where Patterson left off. Littman’s team was already studying a type of T cell called T-helper 17 (Th17) that is one of several created in response to the surge in IL-6 during an immune response to infection. Th17 cells help preserve barrier surfaces such as skin and intestinal linings. In January, Littman’s team showed that a cytokine called IL-17A, made by Th17 cells in response to an infection, crosses the developing blood-brain barrier of the fetus, acts on receptors in the fetal brain, and causes a malformation in the one region of the developing brain. The researchers also saw autism-like behaviors in mouse pups exposed in utero to IL-17A. “It’s probably changing the way that the circuitry of the neurons is laid out during development and that leads to the behavioral deficit,” says Littman. When he and his colleagues treated pregnant mice with an antibody that neutralizes IL-17A, their pups did not show any behavioral changes.

There is a major caveat to this work, says Littman: “Whether this occurs in humans, we have no idea.”

Still, there are grounds for optimism. Last year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an injectable drug that neutralizes a form of IL-17 to treat people with psoriasis; more than 80 percent of the people who received the drug have seen positive results. “It’s revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis,” says Littman. In the past two decades, drug developers have become expert at inventing therapies that target cytokines: Drugs such as Humira, which is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and other autoimmune diseases, are a major pharmaceutical success story. So it might be possible one day to interfere with cytokines that target the developing brain.

However, cytokine-inhibiting drugs can have serious side effects. It’s also not clear how drug developers would be able to achieve Diamond’s vision of an antibody-blocking drug that can be taken safely by a woman who has these antibodies and is hoping to get pregnant. “That’s the fantasy,” she says. “I’m hoping it’s not that hard. We have our ideas of how to do it.”

The test:

Van de Water can take much of the credit for the growing acceptance of the role of the immune system in autism. “She has made an enormous contribution,” says Zimmerman. But clinicians are still wary of an antibody-screening test. They question what they would tell women based on the results of the potential Pediatric Bioscience test, which is not yet on the market. “Predictability is the key,” says Zimmerman. It’s not enough, in other words, to say that a woman has some of the antibodies in question if you can’t also tell her what that means for her risk of having a child with autism. Those answers will come only with prospective studies, the kind that follow women before, during and after pregnancy and track the health of both mother and child. Several such studies, including two conducted by Van de Water’s lab, are underway.


“A fundamental issue has been the rapidity between raising a possibility and talking as though it’s fact,” says Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, a pediatric neurologist at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Jersey. “I worry about this because parents ask me whether they should be treating their kid with this or that, or shouldn’t get pregnant again. There are real-world consequences.”

Van de Water says many doctors and reporters misinterpreted the news of her relationship with Pediatric Bioscience. “You license early,” she says. “The issue that arose was the misunderstanding between academia and industry about what it takes to go to market with a test; it’s a long, slow process of validation and verification.” She says that the intention is for the test to be used initially as a postnatal screen for antibodies in women as an early warning sign that a child should be monitored closely, perhaps leading to earlier diagnosis and therapy.

Eventually, though, the test would be used to assist with family planning. Van de Water argues that families deserve as much information as scientists can give them. She points out that antibody screening would only suggest whether women are high- or low-risk for having a child with autism: “What it gives families is a tool to make what is quite often a very difficult decision.”

Parents desperate for answers are some of Van de Water’s biggest supporters. Having one child with autism raises the risk of having another by 20 percent, so many families welcome any way to get a clearer sense of the odds.

Steve White, of Hayward, California, decided to participate in Van de Water’s antibody study after his third child, Herbie, was diagnosed with autism, even though he and his wife weren’t planning to have any more children. His wife tested positive for two of Van de Water’s seven antibodies. “I can’t say it solved any problems we had, but we were very glad to have answers,” says White. And a 30-year-old mother, Elise, who did not want to give her full name for privacy reasons, says that with a history of miscarriage and one son with autism, her negative results — she had none of the seven antibodies Van de Water has identified — helped her and her husband decide to try to have a second child. “We know it’s not a guarantee, but it’s nice to have one less thing to worry about,” she says.

Van de Water says she regularly gets emails from women asking when the antibody test will be ready. She knows of families who have one child with autism who have opted to use surrogates, for fear that a second child will also have the condition. Even women long past their childbearing years ask if they can be tested. “They just want to know,” she says.

Van de Water says her dream is that her work, combined with efforts to create drugs that protect against maternal antibodies, will one day make it possible to restore the fragile truce between a woman’s immune system and her growing fetus. “That would be amazing.”

  • Ethyl

    This is fascinating. The truce between the immune systems of mother and fetus has always stumped immunologists anyhow. Twenty-five percent of miscarriages are due to chromosomal differences not conducive to life. Early infection (zika, flu, CMV, Rubella) seems to mitigate major CNS abnormalities. Even lack of certain nutrients can affect viability of the fetus (iodine, folic acid).Toxicity of environmental stressors, especially alcohol, can epigenetically rewire us. Why not add the mother’s immune system to so many things that affect us in utero? It is the most powerful defense we have against microbes who hope to conquer us. It is a miracle any of us survive to birth, although it might not seem that way. I’d love to learn the particulars of the mother/fetal immune dance, I know it begins totally differently than how it matures, but that is about all.

    Anyone have a good resource for what we know about the maternal/fetal immune system? I watched one of Dr. Van der Waters talks sponsored by ARI, and it led me to take 2 classes in immunology. I hadn’t had a science class in 30 years. But, still, I know nothing about the fetal immune system, things she brought up in the talk. (I can’t find the video of her talk, but I know it was ARI…here is a possibility of the one it was: )

  • bitch

    You shit bag spreading lies accross the internet. You should be ashamed at yourself that you even took the time to make up an article like this go fuck yourself and anyone who believes this is a moron lol because clearly everyone who is born doesn’t have autism wow you are actually fucking retarded

  • Seth Bittker

    This is a fascinating article. I think it is worth noting that autoimmunity is a continuum and it is not static. So it doesn’t make sense to think of autism as a one hit issue of maternal autoimmunity. Take the example of a stroke. Even in severe cases with those who are elderly, often some neurological damage heals and work-arounds are developed. So if the issue was maternal antibodies alone in autism, one would expect over time some significant improvement especially as maternal antibodies would be affecting the very young where there is still significant brain plasticity.

    For this reason my guess is that in many cases maternal antibodies may be one of the issues but as development occurs the toddler’s brain is affected by antibodies of its own immune system and I suspect it is continuous insult from those antibodies which become the more significant issue. Such autoimmunity can be brought on by or exacerbated by vitamin deficiencies. For example, thiamine deficiency can promote autoimmunity. See:

    • AlisonT

      Exactly. The fear of exploring postnatal autoimmune triggers is tremendous. Spectrum will not even discuss issue yet ask any parent about ear infections or Strep – so common among babies who develop ASD. Over use of antibiotics is rampant. Immune problems are not static or limited to prenatal period.

  • Planet Autism

    Epigenetic inheritance from vaccines. Explains the environmental factor side of things, in at least some autistics.

  • John Redman

    How about sonograms in causing autism?

  • Maggy Momma

    I see this very much as a magnesium / aluminum issue. Magnesium deficiency is associated with autoimmune diseases. Also important is that magnesium protects cells from aluminum – this is crucial – because aluminum can trigger autoimmunity. This has been shown by Zaharoff, A Agmon-Levin, CA Shaw, LTomljenovic… Dr. Chris Exley a.k.a. Aluminum Man mentions at 36 min. in the youtube link I’m adding that a research group from Austria is showing that they can make experimental animals allergic to pretty much anything by injecting the allergen with aluminum (this would explain all the peanut and egg allergies). If aluminum is settling into cells (easier to happen during a magnesium deficiency, or when fluoride is present in the body, for example fluoride from an SSRI) then the body would have autoimmunity against its own cells as well.

  • Thank you for writing his article. The immune connection has been accepted by our pioneers for some time. But it is articles like this one, that are making the rest of the world RETHINK autism. And the answers coming that will help more kids. Children have recovered from autism, and yet the general public and most of our physicians are unaware that this is even possible.

    Please don’t believe all you are told about autism. The “experts” said that one day my son would need to be institutionalized. Thankfully, they were wrong! It wasn’t an easy fix and there are no instant “cures”, but autism is medical, TREATABLE, and surmountable! Today, Ryan is an aerospace engineer. Once we treated my son’s dysfunctional immune system, he regained his health, and was able to learn what he couldn’t before. Don’t wait! Learn what to do to help your child by reading Ryan’s inspiring story “I KNOW YOU’RE IN THERE – Winning Our War With Autism” at .

    Our children need treatment NOW! We will lose an entire generation, if we wait for the research and scientific proof. The answers that will help more children are not coming fast enough and our doctors must be trained. Still, happily ever after is possible, even with autism. I’m here to help any way I can. Email me at [email protected] And there is more info to help at

  • Thank you for writing his article. The immune connection has been accepted by our pioneers for some time. But it is articles like this one that are making the rest of the world RETHINK autism. As a result, the research and answers to help more kids will happen. Children have recovered from autism, and yet the general public and most of our physicians are unaware that this is even possible.

    Please don’t believe all you are told about autism. The “experts” said that one day my son would need to be institutionalized. Thankfully, they were wrong! It wasn’t an easy fix, there was no instant “cure”, but autism is medical, TREATABLE, and surmountable! Today, Ryan is an aerospace engineer. Once we treated my son’s dysfunctional immune system, he regained his health, and was able to learn what he couldn’t before. Don’t wait! Learn what to do to help your child by reading Ryan’s inspiring story “I KNOW YOU’RE IN THERE – Winning Our War With Autism” at .

    Our children need treatment NOW! We will lose an entire generation, if we wait for the research and scientific proof. The answers that will help more children are not coming fast enough and our doctors must be trained. Still, happily ever after is possible even with autism. I’m here to help any way I can. Email me at [email protected] . And there is more info to help at


Log in to your Spectrum Wiki account

Email Address:



Request your Spectrum Wiki account

Spectrum Wiki is a community of researchers affiliated with an academic or research institutions. To be considered for participation, please fill out this form and a member of our team will respond to your request.


Email Address:

Title and Lab:

Area of Expertise: